Lipid and lipoprotein profiles among middle aged male smokers: a study from southern India
Tobacco Induced Diseases 2010, 8:11doi:10.1186/1617-9625-8-11
|Published:||5 October 2010|
Objectives: The objectives were to investigate into the relationship between lipid profile including Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1) and Apolipoprotein-B (Apo-B) and smokers and to relate them with smoking pack years. Materials and Methods: A total of 274 active male smokers without any other illnesses and age matched male healthy control subjects (78) with similar socio-cultural background were assessed for clinical details, dietary habits, physical activities, smoking and alcohol consumption. Standard methods were adopted to check the lipid levels. The data were analyzed statistically.
Their ages ranged from 40 to 59 years, systolic BP from 110 to 130 mmHg, and diastolic BP from 76 to 88 mmHg. All of them had similar pattern of diet (vegetarianism with occasional meat). None was on any medication influences lipid level. Their physical activity was moderate. Number of pack years varied from 10 to 14 (mild), 15 to 19 (moderate) and 20 and above (heavy) among 69, 90 and 115 cases, whose mean ages were 43, 44 and 49 respectively. The mean (+SD) values in mg/dl of total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TGL), Apo-B, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and Apo-A1 in mg/dl among mild/ moderate/ heavy smokers and control subjects were 198 (30.6)/ 224 (27.2)/ 240 (24.3) and 160 (20.4); 164(42.6)/ 199 (39.5)/ 223(41.7) and 124 (31.6); 119 (24.9)/ 121 (27)/ 127 (28.3) and 116 (21.4); 94 (19.7)/ 104 (21.8)/ 120 (20.5) and 82 (17.6); 42 (5.9)/ 39 (3.1)/ 35(4.4) and 48 (5.3); and 120 (17)/ 119 (21)/ 115 (25) and 126 (19), respectively. In smokers, there was a rise in TC, TGL, LDL, Apo-B and fall in HDL and Apo-A; these changes were significant (P<0.05).
Number of pack years was directly proportional to abnormal lipid profile. It is also concluded that changes in Apo-A1 and Apo-B were more significant when compared to HDL and LDL cholesterol among smokers. In the view of double risk for smokers (smoking and altered lipid profile) efforts may be made to introduce smoking cessation program.